One thing that seems to be brought up a lot in conversation around the office, especially for newer folks entering the networking biz, is the choice of using larger modular chassis-based switches versus the smaller simpler fixed-configuration cousins. In fact, most people (myself included when I got my start) don’t even know that “chassis” are an option for switch platforms. This is completely understandable for the typical college and/or Cisco NetAcad. graduate, since the foundational education is focused almost exclusively on networking theory and basic IOS operations. So when, where and why do you use a chassis-based versus a fixed configuration switch?
PS: I’ve decided to make this a two-part series, due to the verbosity of the information. This article will focus on comparing the two different classes of switches and why you might use over the other. In the second part, I’ll provide some real world use cases for both and where they might be typically deployed.
In this article, I’ll be using the following Cisco platforms* for comparison between the two options:
*Note: I’ll be sticking to Cisco purely for simplicity’s sake. Other vendors such as Juniper, HP and Brocade carry their own lines of switching platforms with similar properties. With a bit of research, you can apply the same logic when evaluating the different platforms for your specific implementation.
This is one of the more obvious variables. The Catalyst 6509, a 14RU 9-slot chassis, can have upwards of 384 (336 in dual-supervisor setups) Gigabit copper interfaces. These chassis can also utilize 10Gbps line cards, with those densities in just over 100 10GbE ports per chassis. However, it’ll depend on (especially on 6500’s) what supervisor modules you’re running along with your PFC/CFC/DFC daughtercards that will determine if those densities are a bit lower or higher than those numbers. This is where it’s critical to do your research before placing your orders or moving forward with implementations.
On the flip-side, fixed-configuration switches are just that – fixed chassis with limited modular functionality. Some exceptions apply, such as the Nexus 5500 switches that have slots to add additional modules to. However, generally speaking, WYSIWYG with these classes of switches. If we look at the same rack space of 14RU as with the previous example, that could potential be fourteen 48-port Gigabit Ethernet switches. A slew of Catalyst 3750’s gives you a whooping 672 ports in the same rack space. However, keep in mind that’s fourteen switches, as opposed to a single chassis-based switch. You’ll have to keep this in mind when putting this hardware into your topology (to be discussed below). Unless of course you plan to run your switches in a stack via technology such as Cisco StackWise, which helps reduce the burden of managing so many switches separately. Since Cisco stacks are restricted to a maximum of 9 switches per stack, you’ll be looking to manage at least two different switch stacks to match the 14RU and achieve the most port density in this comparison.
A side note for 10-Gig connectivity. The Nexus 5548UP can use up to 32 10GbE plus 16 with optional expansion module in a 1RU form factor. To compare to the 6509, that’s over 600 10GbE ports in a 14RU space. While it may be unfair to compare a newer Nexus series switch directly to a 6500 chassis, it’s comparison is purely for the discussion of form factor differences. A quick look at the Nexus 7009 chassis has similar 10GbE density as the 6509, which increasing densities with the larger chassis’s.
At the end of the day, fixed-configuration switches (generally speaking) packs more ports in the same amount of rack space as chassis switches.
Typically, fixed-configuration switches are copper-based FastEthernet and/or GigE. Exceptions again exist, as with the Nexus 5500’s (Unified Ports models) being able to run their interfaces in Ethernet or native Fibre Channel. In your fixed-config’ers, you’ll also typically have higher-speed uplink ports that support higher-speed optics such as SFP/SFP+, GBIC, XENPAK and X2’x. And of course, there are SFP-based flavours that give you all fiber ports if that’s what tickles your fancy.
On your chassis-based switches, you will see that you have a wider choice of interface types. You’ll have your 10GbE line cards, which can be a combination of SFP/SFP+, XENPAK (older), X2, RJ45 and GBIC transceivers. You can also make use of DWDM/CWDM modules and transceivers for your single-mode long-range runs. Also, with 40 Gigabit Ethernet becoming more relevant and deployed, QSFP+ and CFP connectivity is an option as well (if the chassis in question can properly support it). The only restriction on chassis-based switches are what line cards you have to work with.
Due to the nature of fixed switches, it’s natural that a chassis comprised of modular line cards has more interface selection.
Here’s where things become a little more subtle. Again, for simplicity’s sake, I’ll restrict this section to the following models of switches:
- Catalyst 6509 Chassis w/ Supervisor 720
- Catalyst 3750-X 48-port Gigabit Switch
- Nexus 5548UP Switch
Let’s start with the fixed switches. The fixed-configuration Catalyst 3750-X switches are equipped with 160 Gbps switch fabrics which should be ample capacity for line-rate gigabit speeds. Let’s also not forget that fabric throughput is not the only measure of performance. These switches, and most similarly designed fixed-configuration “access” switches, have smaller shared port buffers which can become problematic with very bursty traffic.
On the Nexus 5548UP’s, we see a different story. Being a 10GbE switch with a 960Gbps fabric, naturally we see the 5548 have much higher performance than it’s LAN cousins. Port buffers on the Nexus 5500’s are dedicated per port (640KB), allowing these switches to handle bursts very easily.
The Catalyst 6509, being a modular chassis-based switch, bases its performance on the Supervisor modules in use, as well as the specific line card+daughter card combination. For simplicity’s sake, let’s assume a Supervisor 720 (since the switch fabric is located on the supervisor in these switches, that’s 720Gbps switching capacity across the entire chassis) and X6748-GE-TX 48-port 1Gig ethernet modules. Due to the hardware architecture of these chassis, each slot is constrained to 40 Gbps capacity per slot, so slight over-subscription for 48x1Gbps line cards will occur. Luckily, each port is given a 1.3MB buffer so bursty traffic is handled just fine on these line cards. When using DFC daughter cards, line cards will even handle their own local switching and so won’t be constrained to the 40Gbps-per-slot restriction. This is because packets don’t need to traverse the backplane when switched port-to-port on the same line card. May I reiterate that for these kind of switches, do your homework. The performance of a chassis-based switch depends on more factors due to the combination of supervisor, switch fabric and line cards in use.
One of the most obvious benefits of a chassis-based switch is redundant and highly-available hardware. The Catalyst 6500 is typically deployed with two Supervisor modules. By having two supervisors, you’re protected by failures in the data plane (due to redundant active/standby switch fabrics), the control plane (NSF/SSO) as well as the management plane (IOS is loaded on both supervisors and thus can continue to operate even when an active Sup fails). Chassis switches also utilize redundant power supplies to protect against electrical failures.
On the other side of the coin, you have fixed configuration switches. While some newer switches do utilize redundant power supplies, none of them use separate modules or components for data, control or management plane. They utilize on-board switch fabrics for forwarding as well as a single CPU for running your IOS images and control plane protocols.
Chassis here is the clear winner.
Let me start this section by delving into what I mean by “services”. This includes features that are considered additional to basic switching. This will include support for things such as partial and/or full Layer 3 routing, MPLS, service modules such as firewalls and wireless LAN controllers (WLC) and other extras you may find on these platforms.
I think it’s safe to say that, generally speaking, fixed configuration switches are simple devices. As with the Catalyst line, with software, you can utilize full Layer 3 routing and most normal routing protocols such as OSPF, EIGRP and BGP. Keep in mind, however, that you will often be limited by TCAM capacity for IP routes so forget about full BGP tables and the like. However, they get the job done. One great benefit is support for Power over Ethernet (PoE), which is usually standard on copper-based fixed configuration switches.
The Nexus 5500’s are a bit of an exception. On the one hand, out of the box, they are Layer 2 only devices that can only support (albeit limited) Layer 3 with an expansion module. However, with the Unified Ports, they also support native Fibre Channel as well as modern NX-OS software. I would say that, for specific use cases, the compromise is quite reasonable. Elaborating on that will be in my next post.
The Catalyst 6500 is the champion of services. Being a modular chassis, Cisco developed many modules that were specifically designed with services in mind. This includes the Firewall Services Module (FWSM), Wireless Service Module (WiSM) controllers, SSL VPN module, and ACE/CSS load balancers. While these modules have fallen out of favour due to performance constraints of the chassis itself as well as lack of development interest and feature parity with standalone counterparts, the fact of the matter is that there are still many Cisco customers in the field with these in place. The WiSM, for example, is essentially a WLC4400 on a blade. Being able to convenient integrate that directly into a chassis saves rack space as well as ports by using the backplane directly to communicate with the wired LAN. Other services supported on the 6500 from a software standpoint include Virtual Switching System (VSS) (with use of the VS-SUP720 or SUP2T), full Layer 3 routing with large TCAM, MPLS and VPLS support (with proper line cards) and PoE.
The chassis win in this category due to the modular “swiss army knife” designs.
I’ll just briefly mention the cost comparison between the two configurations. You will typically see a chassis-based switch eclipse a fixed configuration switch in terms of cost, due to the complexity of the hardware design as well as all the modularity with chassis. You’ll always have a long laundry list of parts that will have to be purchased in order to build a chassis-based switch, including the chassis itself, power supplies, supervisors, line cards and daughter cards (if applicable). Fixed configuration switches typically have a much lower cost of entry, with only limited modularity with certain platforms.
And there you have it. Hopefully, this will give you an insight into why you might use one form factor over the other. In my next part, I’ll provide some use-case examples for each and where you may typically deploy one versus the other.